uttiSTha bhArata

SanskritIn the second article of the series viz. Mechanism of generating new words in Sanskrit, we saw how new words can be generated using dhAtus. In this article, we shall see how virtually everything in Sanskrit can be broken down into dhAtus. Yes! you got it right, virtually everything. We will also see that words in Sanskrit not only represent properties and objects but they also represent ideas,  which is the base from which all the other words are derived.

The most basic…

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uttiSTha bhArata

Did you know, Sanskrit is a highly word-order free language ? What does this mean ? It means that you can take a Sanskrit sentence, jumble its words the way you wish and there is good probability that the resulting sentence would still mean the same as the original one. Don’t believe ? Here is an illustration. All the sentences given below mean exactly the same.

वासांसिजीर्णानिविहायनवानिगृह्णातिनरःअपराणि ॥
विहायजीर्णानि वासांसि नवानिगृह्णातिनरःअपराणि ॥
नरः विहायवासांसि

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uttiSTha bhArata

Given below is a section from mahAbhArata, where Arjun explains to Krishna his logic of not fighting the war. Apart from the literary, philosophical and poetic content, one thing is starkly conspicuous in this. Where are the punctuation marks?? No commas, no quotations, no semi-colons and no exclamation marks !! All we see are the single and double vertical lines viz. and . If they are punctuation marks, then why are they appearing at such regular intervals ?

अर्जुन उवाच
यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।…

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uttiSTha bhArata

We elucidated in the first article of this series that words in Sanskrit represent properties while words in the other languages represent objects. Well, this is not entirely true. Probably, every language has some words that represent properties and some that represent objects. And, Sanskrit is no exception to this. But what separates out Sanskrit is the sheerly enormous ratio of Words representing properties to Words representing objects. Let’s call this ratio X.

X = Words representing properties : Words representing objects then we observe that

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uttiSTha bhArata

In the last article viz. Similarities between Sanskrit and Programming Languages, we analysed a Sanskrit sentence (again given below for convenience).

मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः । which means.. A stupid person must be avoided. He is like a two-legged animal in-front of the eyes.

SanskritComparing the Sanskrit and the English versions, the difference is conspicuous. Only 5 words in the Sanskrit version but so many in the English version. We also explained in the last article that this enormous shortening has been possible due to the notion…

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uttiSTha bhArata

In this article, we are going to see how Sanskrit uses programming concepts similar to classes, objects and pointers to shorten the language. To do this, we will try to translate a sample Sanskrit sentence to English and dwell into the nitty-gritties of it. Along the way, you will get introduced to a very innovative sentence structure, totally different from the structure of the language you currently speak.

Given below is our sample sentence.  It appears in the text राजनीतिसमुच्चय authored by आचार्य चाणक्य |

मूर्खः…

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Vocative Case / सम्बोधन विभक्ति (sambodhana vibhakti)

Vocative Case or सम्बोधन विभक्ति (sambodhana vibhakti) of noun-form represents the word used to address or call someone or something.

Study the following sentences. These are in vocative case.

 

O! Boy हे बाल
he baala
Here boy (बाल / baala), creeper (लता / lataa) and God (देव / deva) are in vocative case or सम्बोधन विभक्ति (sambodhana vibhakti)
O! Creeper हे लते
he late
O! God हे देव
he deva

All the above sentences address or call someone. So, the person or thing being addressed is in vocative case.

Note: I (अस्मद् / asmad) and You (युस्मद् / yusmad) words do not have any vocative case.

 

Vocative Case (सम्बोधन विभक्ति / sambodhana vibhakti)
Word
शब्द
Gender
लिङ्ग
Singular
एकवचन
Dual
द्विवचन
Plural
बहुवचन
Similar Words
Boy
बाल / baala
M – पुं बाल
baala
बालौ
baalau
बालाः
baalaaH
Creeper
लता / lataa
F – स्त्री लते
late
लते
late
लताः
lataaH
River
नदी / nadii
F – स्त्री नदी
nadii
नद्यो
nadyau
नद्यः
nadyaH
Fruit
फलम् / phalam
N – नपुं फलम्
phalam
फले
phale
फलानि
phalaani